Tomur Atagök a leading feminist artist from Turkey, was born in Istanbul. After graduating from Robert College in Istanbul, she trained in the United States from 1960-1973, first at Oklahoma State University where she immersed herself in abstract painting and earned a BFA. She then went on to the California College of Arts and Crafts and the University of California, Berkeley for an MA. During her years in Berkeley, she experienced the Free Speech movement, then the civil rights uprisings, and third, protests by feminist artists .
After returning to Turkey in 1973, she pioneered, first of all as a painter, then as a teacher, curator, and historian. In the 1980s her painting focused on contemporary women, often painting on a metallic surface. Several works featured Madonna as a contemporary icon.
During these same years she was the Assistant Director of Mimar Sinan University Museum of Painting and Sculpture , where she also earned a Ph.D. in Museology. She then moved to Yildiz Technical University where she founded and chaired the first Museum Studies Program in Turkey in 1989. Atagök has trained many of the current museum professionals in Turkey. At the same time she began collaborating on ground breaking exhibitions of contemporary Turkish artists with several focusing on women artists. In honor of the 75th anniversary of the founding of the Turkish Republic in 1993, she co organized the first exhibition of the history of women artists in Turkey “Woman in Anatolia” and “Contemporary Turkish Women Artists, organized by the Ministry of Culture.
Part II Feminism
Tomur states: “My approach has always been that of considering “feminism in art” from both artistic and activist points of view, and I have been concerned that women artists are unable to construct their identities despite their art. My mission was first based on making the women artists aware of the hegemony of the white-male artist of the Western world. Since I was working as the assistant director at the only art museum in Istanbul, it was relatively easy for me to research, give lectures, and later organize exhibitions of women artists. However, I must add that my attempts were often received with disinterest by all. Nevertheless, my own practice as an artist used “woman” as the subject from as early as the late 1970s.” (n. paradoxa, 2002)
Tomur’s work follows several intersecting themes although feminism is a central focus throughout her career. In her works of the 1980s, we see her assertion of the figurative in the midst of dynamic abstract expressionist brushstrokes. these dynamic paintings exude incredible energy of the brushstrokes and the figures.
She began to paint on metal on 1981 and already by 1983 she won an award with a three dimensional work called Symmetric Altar with Madonna facing the Christian Mary .
The artist explains: “The pictorial reality and space on a metallic surface contains the hints the artist gets from the environment, the symbols and the descriptions she uses in making references to the outside world, the different realities of the materials and the techniques, the images reflected from the environment and the perceiver on the surface of the metallic work, and finally the interpretation of the perceiver each time create different subjective and materialistic realities of art.
On the other hand pictorial reality and real space, change physically with the reflections from the environment and the perceiver himself, and join with the physical environment and movement, creating a connection of life with art.”
In 1990 the critic William Zimmer asked the artist about the frequent use of the color pink “It’s a color which she confided in me she cannot abide, but which also stands for humanity from a feminist perspective. Pink which traditionally connotes softness is applied to metal, meaning toughness.”
Part 3 The Goddesses
In 1996 Tomur was awarded a Fulbright Research Grant to American University to study American feminist art. While there she had a meeting with Professor Norma Broude who made the suggestion that she look at feminism in Turkey through the lens of the goddess traditions from Anatolia. When she returned to Turkey she took on that challenge a produced a stunning installation on ten metal panels that alternate between various goddess images, abstraction and references to women’s bodies.
Dominating this series is the great Anatolian Mother Goddess from Çatalhöyük. That twenty centimeter statuette, excavated from the oldest city in the world, dates from around 5700 BC. The small figure has enormous power: she is seated comfortably between subdued leopards as she gives birth. Her breasts, hips and buttocks swell to enormous proportions, further increasing her power. Far removed from the slender, even emaciated, ideal for a female body that is now common for some contemporary societies (notably the United States), this goddess proclaims her physical presence and her authority at the same time.
In the paintings by Tomur Atagök, the Goddess assumes much larger dimensions as she joins our world as a life size figure who stands as a guardian. Rather than a fertility symbol, she is now a symbol simply of the power of women. She is an affirmation of women’s energy and authority. On her head she wears a type of mechanical diadem/crown in one painting, and sits in front of a golden shower of sun in another.
Two of these large goddesses frame a third panel that makes reference to the interior of woman, specifically here, the vertebrae and ovaries ( see image at top of post). The woman’s interior, so often altered today by contemporary medical science, is here protected by powerful traditional forces.
Another of these grand paintings is based on Artemis of Ephesus. Artemis, later changed to a slender virgin hunter by the Romans, is here seen in her guise as Cybele, another Anatolian mother goddess.
Her many breasts carry the power of nurturing and life. In place of the animals under her protection on the traditional statues, this painting has guns, tanks and other references to military warfare. Artemis also has black gloves and a contemporary face with bold red lipstick and blond hair. It was done in response the violation of sacred lands by military weapons, particularly during the Gulf War. This powerful statement could be about any war and its destructive effect on life as a whole
The collective presence of these goddesses is a powerful commentary on contemporary women and their connection to historical traditions. They are major examples of contemporary art in Turkey.
Part 4 Opposition to War and Violence
Atagok often inserts text into her work. One of her most famous is an homage to Uğur Mumcu an investigative journalist researching terrorism in Turkey who was murdered in 1993. In her homage Tomur wrote on the painting in Turkish a quote from the journalist:
Translated into English it said:
There are those who have preferred a lifestyle of silence
pulling inward as a personal symbol.
Their freedom and weapons do not speak.
Every injustice takes strength in a way from their passivity.
The artist called the entire series dedicated to the journalist “Games, Toys, Children, War, Love,” completed in 1999-2000. In some works metal scraps seem to invoke the violence of Mumcu’s death. A complete heart in another offers a brighter tone. The heart is only partially visible as a double or single curve in some works. Against that motif emerge silhouettes of guns, toy soldiers, bones, paper doll cutouts, hands, dots, crosses, and crescents. In addition the artist uses stones, sticks, feathers, and glossy advertising images of beautiful people. Scattered throughout many of the works are poetic phrases, of various moods, hopeful, sad, cynical.
The series as a whole is an homage to Mumcu, but also a response to him. Atagök has decided not to remain passively silent in the face of her own distress at his death and her support for his ideas.
Part 5 Nature
Another theme that intersects with women both politics and women is nature. It takes many forms. Her home is filled with examples of recreating nature in the midst of her life–she even created a forest in her basement and had an exhibition in 2011 that featured an installation of branches, paintings, diaries and other pieces.
Her commitment to calling attention to the small details of branches or bones and repositioning them on the surface of her painting or simply suspending them in a frame results in a subtle relationship between abstraction and realism. In other works she takes random trash found in the woods and creates constructions.
When asked what is most important to her at this time in her life (she turned 82 in May), she answered her nature installations. She lives in the midst of nature. She has been living and working in rural Demirciköy, Sarıyer, İstanbul since her retirement in 2006. It is close to the Black Sea and in the midst of trees and flowers. She is deeply concerned about climate change and the effects of humans on the destruction of the fragile ecosystem.
Part 6 The Diaries
In addition to all of these major works, Tomur has made hundreds of small works, part of her ongoing Diaries. Each one is composed of a the detritus of everyday life, a candy wrapper, a ticket to an exhibition framed in a small format with her signature expressionist gestures added. These small diaries tell the story of her life in collage. They have been exhibited on their own and in connection with larger works (such as perched on top of the goddess series). They tell us as much about who this prolific artist is as do the large scale works.
As the Elgiz Museum described the Diaries in 2006 :
“a collage of over 1000 post card sized mixed media works produced between 1990 and 2006. Journeys through France, Germany, Italy, USA, UK, Macedonia, Greece, Azerbaijan, South Korea, Yugoslavia and Turkey represent the subjects for the artist’s reflection; instead of following the conventional literary format of a diary where passages are added simultaneously with the event, Atagök chooses to reflect on each event after a period of time has passed; this allows her to effectively fuse the past with the present. She chooses not to focus on isolated moments but on a collection of memories illustrated through everyday items such as tickets, wrappings and photos. ‘The Diaries’ does not function as a commentary on life but is intended as an accumulation of recycled materials intercepted by art. These works are more personal, informal and social compared to her recent series ‘Anatolian Goddesses’ and ‘War and Peace’ executed on metal and reflective surfaces.”
Part 7 Views of her house
Tomur Atagök is an artist, a feminist, a pioneering writer and historian of art by women in Turkey, an educator of museum professionals, an activist. Yet all of these identities still do not fully encompass her accomplishments.
She is profoundly committed to continuity of art and life. She is above all a deeply feeling human being who when asked about her dream project stated: “ I would like to work more on the human equality with man and woman feelings of separation. We are all equal!”
Testimonios,Blanca Santander’s poignant digital installation about migrant children forcibly separated from their parents and put into cages by the US government, speaks directly to our hearts. The artist created seven soft sculptures representing children, each inscribed with words of the children who were placed into insufferable conditions in what is known as the Ursula Processing Center. Santander then arranged them in a digital exhibition, they seem to come and speak to us. Friends and students of the artist spoke the words written on the sculpture.
Blanca Describes the Work:
“In 2018, President Donald Trump enacted a “Zero-Tolerance” border policy that superseded all prior border policies, allowing immediate persecution of all persons who crossed the border. This abrupt and aggressive executive order led to an infamous and much-undeserved crisis, where children were forcibly separated from their parents. Lost and afraid without their guardians, these children lived in awful and inhumane conditions–cramped in detention facilities with more than maximum occupancy, stuffed in rooms filled with complete strangers, little to no privacy for restroom usage, no clothes to change into, little to nothing to wash themselves with, no beds, no blankets, no one to console them. Around 5,500 children were separated after the policy was signed by President Trump, and more were separated even after the policy was rescinded. These children, who were left crying for their parents, for decent treatment, for freedom, are still today traumatized and scared, being put through an oppressive and confusing border-law system, with complex litigation and paperwork, as well as hiding from past and current terrors on either side of the southern borders.”
As many as 2000 children were crowded together in cages. According to one report there were a dozen cages each with 140 children. The facility near McAllen Texas was within the hundred mile border zone, so Border Patrol has broad authority to ignore Constitutionally protected rights. So mindlessly obsessed driven were the White House administrators to create a strong stand against immigration, that even infants were separated from their parents, left completely alone ( over the objections of the attorney generals from the border states). In a few cases older siblings looked out for them, or at least tried to, given the horrendous situation.
These children have now been placed in foster homes, still separated from their families, or in shelters run by the Office of Refuge and Resettlement. A few have been reunited with a parent in the US that they never knew. The trauma they suffered can never be erased either from their own psyches, or from our own. Many of the parents have been deported to Mexico. As of February 2020 r there are still 500 children whose parents cannot be found in spite of efforts to find them in Mexico and elsewhere.
The artwork bears the testimonies of the children who were kept in detention near the border, where they plead for places to sleep, to eat, bathe, and see their families once again. The work is inspired by the information released to the public, dedicated to spreading awareness and drawing compassion for these children within our own borders, children who need our help and even more so with the outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic, which makes them subject to more stress and legal and humane trouble.”
This collage is a study for the final work.
The Ursula Processing Center is being “remodeled,” a rather ominous idea, perhaps indicating that in the future, children will once again go there. According to the New York Times, “the renovated facility is designed for 1100 children.” The facility opened under Obama as a short term solution (even then illegal and unacceptable), but under the political machinations of the last four years, the children were left there for months and the chaos of trying to find the parents has gone on for years because virtually no record keeping happened. There are still many children who have not been reunited with family. Yesterday we heard that the Biden Administration is opening a new facility for children. It looks to be less inhumane, but the fact that it exists at all is terrible.
As one advocate for the children stated “It’s unnecessary, it’s costly, and it goes absolutely against everything [President] Biden promised he was going to do,” said Linda Brandmiller, a San Antonio-based immigration lawyer who represents unaccompanied minors. “It’s a step backward, is what it is. It’s a huge step backward.”
Testimoniosbears witness to Santander’s own deep feelings for migrants. She herself came from Peru . She knows first hand why these migrants are coming. As she told me “ The Shining Path terrorism in Peru lasted 18-20 years. Because of my work, I was constantly in the heart of terrorism that was in the mountain regions of Peru. I was working with NGOs like UNICEF to help create educational materials for children in impoverished areas. Alongside these educational materials were things such as sustainable agricultural techniques and being aware of and protecting endangered wildlife. To have cultural relevance in my illustrations I had to travel across my country and see how impoverished and/or indigenous people lived. Every community is different than other ones. There were difficult times in my country and the communities needed authentic support.”
Esperanza Abandonada (Abandoned Hope) 2017 poignantly and succinctly refers to the tragedy of immigration for children. It foretells Testimonios. It depicts a doll impaled on the other side of a barbwire fence.
As the artist said “It depicts a doll impaled on the other side of a barbwire fence. Its poignant image of a child who has lost her beloved doll, crossing the line into another land, speaks directly to the hardships of fleeing home to enter an unfamiliar place. Even when working hard within the borders of their new land, they have to flee from those who would take their new life away, often leaving behind what is most precious to them in the process.”
But these works are only one aspect of Santander’s work. She has addressed many topics, followed many directions, including public art in Seattle. She often approaches her work with celebration and joy.
She declared “It is difficult to express my emotions and thoughts in words, so illustrating and painting are extremely important to me. They get my message out to the world, where I am not bound by a language barrier. I feel free when I paint, because I can pour out the feeling tethered to my existence.: that I am a mother, a woman, a warrior, lover of peace, my culture and mother nature. I rarely express sorrow or lack of color, as I find more happiness and freedom in painting liveliness of nature and the female body. But sometimes the sorrow I feel for the world and its woes must exit through my hand onto paper or canvas. I want viewers to feel happiness for the world and what it has to offer – trees and flowers that give us beauty and protection; the strength and momentousness of women and the Mother Earth.”
An example of this more joyful work is Daughters of Immigration, “Immigration to this land means you have emigrated from another. You have left behind family, tradition, culture, and language. All here is new and strange. The feeling of home becomes divided, and you don’t feel like you belong to one culture or the other. Then your children are born here and they are North American. They grow up only knowing this land and only memories and shadows of the other.
They are sons and daughters of immigration. We live out of suitcases full of our heritage and culture. Does being different make us stronger? Are life’s struggles really just a shared experience calling us to unite our energies for a better world? I have learned to identify with immigrants from all over the world. I feel sisterhood with all immigrant women. In my paintings women are celebrated as the nucleus of the family. Being a mother gives us incredible strength to draw from an inner power to fight for a better life for our families. We also have an insight and connection as creators of life when it comes to our feelings for our planet.”
Blanca Santander is a Peruvian-American artist who has lived in Seattle since immigrating in 1996. Her artwork focuses on environmental and social justice, as well as her identity and her heritage. Either by teaching art to children, or by providing artwork that is colorful, informative, or uplifting to those who may come across it, Blanca uses the passions that inform her art to help uplift others in her community.
This year, 2020, we celebrate ten days in September 1995 as the 25th anniversary of the United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing, China. This event brought together 17,000 UN delegates and 30,000 representatives from civil society NGO’s (non-governmental organizations). Women worldwide went to the conference to explore the role of women in society, develop solutions with timelines, enumerate steps to reach those goals, and demand accountability. The conference laid the foundation for a penetrating analysis of women’s needs, aspirations, and rights. On stage in Beijing, Hillary Rodham Clinton gave her address of “Women’s Rights are Human Rights”. It was a fitting triumph after the long struggle of Eleanor Roosevelt during the early years of the UN when she worked tirelessly to create the “Universal Declaration of Human Rights”.
WCA had a truly remarkable presence in Beijing, with 100 women attending the NGO Forum. (Some report 99 women and one man). The delegation was led by President Helen Klebesadel and Vice-President Jo Hockenhull. The representatives from WCA were artists committed to the rights of women. They shared their artwork which expressed a new sort of world—just a step or two closer to the Utopia we all dream of. They set up makeshift art exhibitions, moderated panels, participated in performance arts, and attended official UN events. China was not a welcoming host and NGO participants were followed, harassed, threatened. Many events were moved to far away locations or cancelled at the last minute. Nonetheless, the women endured (of course!) The experienced bad weather, good art, new ideas, renewed commitments to social/artistic activism, and the beginnings of lifelong friendships.
The outcome of the Beijing Conference was “The Beijing Platform for Action” adopted unanimously by 189 countries, a stunning document which demanded gender equality and a decent and dignified life for women. It enumerated the abuses that women endure, as well as the rights they should be able to expect in any culture. The strategic objectives and concrete actions included addressing: women and poverty, education, health, violence against women, women and armed conflict, women in the economy, women in power and decision-making, institutional mechanisms for the advancement of women, human rights and women, women and media, women and the environment, and the young girl.
Beijing expanded the scope of feminism, pulling it out of narrow western confines to address ideas of global feminism with many more issues to consider, embracing women from less industrialized countries, more repressive cultures and vastly different value systems.
The insights, resolutions, and plans are as relevant and timely today as they were when first written. They continue to be a blueprint for societal change. An omission was addressing sexual and gender orientation. A few countries with widespread fundamentalist religious beliefs refused to sign on, and 100% agreement was a requirement for the platform. Much to the consternation of the vast majority, a few of these conservative delegates made some negotiations difficult. (Since then, updated progressive UN resolutions fill in this gap.) Nonetheless, the Beijing Platform is a substantial document that maintains timeliness and purpose. Today, 25 years later, it is still referenced as the most comprehensive survey of changes that must be made to advance women’s rights. The Beijing Platform still shows the path forward. And the United Nations continues to be the main institutional proponent worldwide for the advancement of women. As a result of the Beijing Conference, the greatly expanded awareness of the importance of women’s rights in all human endeavors led to strengthening of women’s organizations within the United Nations, which eventually led to the creation of “UN Women” in 2010.
Since this landmark event twenty five years ago, much progress has been made, but it has been a fragile victory, with a signifiant amount of ground lost recently. This is due in part to the effect the pandemic on all of our lives. And the increase of fascism worldwide has emboldened entrenched patriarchy with the resultant subjugation of women. Cultural evolution is always uneven, with lots of setbacks. Progress is not a steady and unbroken march forward. But, as Martin Luther King reminded us, “the arc of the moral universe is long, but it bends toward justice”. We will have to maintain our resolve, as the reactionary forces we see today will not go away quickly or easily. We face a rise in right wing ideologies and populist movements threatening democracies worldwide, a suffering planet in the middle of a climate crisis, massive human rights violations, a pandemic that has isolated most people in the world, slowed down economies, and torn at the fabric of our nations. All of these crises disproportionately affect women. Public sentiment is divided on women’s issues. Even women are divided. But historical trends move in the direction of increased human rights, albeit with difficulty. The challenges of today are a stark reminder that we must remain vigilant. There will be continuing threats to progress. Of course we know that we will never step into that Utopia we imagine, but we must keep up the struggle to get closer and closer. Fortunately, at the UN, the Beijing Platform continues to be the standard to strive towards for all women in all countries. “BUILD BACK BETTER”
Cynthia Navaretta, a native New Yorker, was born Cynthia Greenberg on January 31, 1923, she was a graduate architect and mechanical engineer, a rarity in those days, but made a name for herself in what had been traditionally a male-dominated contemporary art world, beginning in the 1940s.
Over a long life she befriended thousands of artists, working most ardently on behalf of women in the arts and women artists of color, specifically. A quiet force, yet one who earned wide respect. She gained recognition in her educated field by designing the air conditioning and heating systems for the New York World’s Fair in 1964. She published Women Artist’s News and established Mid-March Arts Press in the 1970s.
As a member of The Club in the 1950s, Navaretta was one of just a few women to penetrate that male preserve of Abstract Expressionists. As a result of her early access to the members of the New York School painters and sculptors, she and her late husband, the painter Emanual Navaretta, amassed a noteworthy collection of art. She went on to start a series of artist service organizations and serve on the boards of others including: The Artists Certification Committee of the New York Department of Cultural Affairs, The New York City Loft Board, The Foundation for the Community of Artists, The College Art Association, the Artists Talk on Art steering committee and later board of directors, the Women’s Caucus on Art, the International Association of Art Critics and a number of others. Cynthia also was a founding member of WIA Women In the Arts Foundation, Inc. founded in 1971 working to overcome discrimination against women artists.
Among her many published books were: Women Artists of the World, Mutiny in the Mainstream: Talk that Changed Art 1975–1990 (with Judy Seigel), Gumbo Ya Ya: Anthology of African-American Artists and a Guide to Women’s Art Organizations, to name just a few.
She is survived by her son Miles Navaretta, his wife Deborah and a grandchild.
MC: Susan Schwalb Primary Memorial Speakers: the series of primary speakers will include (in alphabetical order):
Katie Deepwell, publisher Kari Grimsby, photographer and website designer Leslie King Hammond, artist, arts administrator, curator and art historian Cassandra Langer, art critic, art historian and artist Kim Levin, art critic and writer Susan Platt, art historian, art critic Howardina Pindell, artist Susan Schwalb, artist , art writer Douglas I. Sheer, artist, writer and Artist Talk on Art Chairman Emeritus Dorothy Sinclair, actress and friend
Additional speakers are being allotted time at the conclusion of these remarks.